Common

Common

Author: Pierre Dardot

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

Published: 2019-01-24

Total Pages: 496

ISBN-13: 1474238629

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Around the globe, contemporary protest movements are contesting the oligarchic appropriation of natural resources, public services, and shared networks of knowledge and communication. These struggles raise the same fundamental demand and rest on the same irreducible principle: the common. In this exhaustive account, Pierre Dardot and Christian Laval show how the common has become the defining principle of alternative political movements in the 21st century. In societies deeply shaped by neoliberal rationality, the common is increasingly invoked as the operative concept of practical struggles creating new forms of democratic governance. In a feat of analytic clarity, Dardot and Laval dissect and synthesize a vast repository on the concept of the commons, from the fields of philosophy, political theory, economics, legal theory, history, theology, and sociology. Instead of conceptualizing the common as an essence of man or as inherent in nature, the thread developed by Dardot and Laval traces the active lives of human beings: only a practical activity of commoning can decide what will be shared in common and what rules will govern the common's citizen-subjects. This re-articulation of the common calls for nothing less than the institutional transformation of society by society: it calls for a revolution.


Book Synopsis Common by : Pierre Dardot

Download or read book Common written by Pierre Dardot and published by Bloomsbury Publishing. This book was released on 2019-01-24 with total page 496 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Around the globe, contemporary protest movements are contesting the oligarchic appropriation of natural resources, public services, and shared networks of knowledge and communication. These struggles raise the same fundamental demand and rest on the same irreducible principle: the common. In this exhaustive account, Pierre Dardot and Christian Laval show how the common has become the defining principle of alternative political movements in the 21st century. In societies deeply shaped by neoliberal rationality, the common is increasingly invoked as the operative concept of practical struggles creating new forms of democratic governance. In a feat of analytic clarity, Dardot and Laval dissect and synthesize a vast repository on the concept of the commons, from the fields of philosophy, political theory, economics, legal theory, history, theology, and sociology. Instead of conceptualizing the common as an essence of man or as inherent in nature, the thread developed by Dardot and Laval traces the active lives of human beings: only a practical activity of commoning can decide what will be shared in common and what rules will govern the common's citizen-subjects. This re-articulation of the common calls for nothing less than the institutional transformation of society by society: it calls for a revolution.


Summit Life Today

Summit Life Today

Author: Dave McAuley

Publisher: WestBow Press

Published: 2015-02-25

Total Pages: 242

ISBN-13: 1490863257

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Summit Life Today is designed to give you fresh insights each day. The principles, quotes, and Scripture passages that make up each Summit Life Today lesson are also designed for you to apply that very day. Reading and sharing these principles with your team will help you: improve your daily practices find encouragement be inspired engage in meaningful dialogue These practical leadership lessons will lift you as a leader and help you gain insight from a summit perspective as you chart your path for the day. Two things are true of all leaders: leaders are learners, and leaders want to help other people. Summit Life Today is a learning tool that not only grows you as a leader but also gives you lessons you can use to help others on your team. When you grow yourself and grow your team, you are expanding your leadership capacity and increasing the reach of your influence. The right connections are necessary for effective leadership. As a Christian leader, in whatever platform of influence God has placed you, your responsibility is to align the individual talent on your team toward a collective and unified purpose. Well-connected teams working together toward a common goal are powerful.


Book Synopsis Summit Life Today by : Dave McAuley

Download or read book Summit Life Today written by Dave McAuley and published by WestBow Press. This book was released on 2015-02-25 with total page 242 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Summit Life Today is designed to give you fresh insights each day. The principles, quotes, and Scripture passages that make up each Summit Life Today lesson are also designed for you to apply that very day. Reading and sharing these principles with your team will help you: improve your daily practices find encouragement be inspired engage in meaningful dialogue These practical leadership lessons will lift you as a leader and help you gain insight from a summit perspective as you chart your path for the day. Two things are true of all leaders: leaders are learners, and leaders want to help other people. Summit Life Today is a learning tool that not only grows you as a leader but also gives you lessons you can use to help others on your team. When you grow yourself and grow your team, you are expanding your leadership capacity and increasing the reach of your influence. The right connections are necessary for effective leadership. As a Christian leader, in whatever platform of influence God has placed you, your responsibility is to align the individual talent on your team toward a collective and unified purpose. Well-connected teams working together toward a common goal are powerful.


The Philosophy of Logical Atomism

The Philosophy of Logical Atomism

Author: Bertrand Russell

Publisher: Routledge

Published: 2009-09-10

Total Pages: 208

ISBN-13: 1135223173

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Logical Atomism is a philosophy that sought to account for the world in all its various aspects by relating it to the structure of the language in which we articulate information. In The Philosophy of Logical Atomism, Bertrand Russell, with input from his young student Ludwig Wittgenstein, developed the concept and argues for a reformed language based on pure logic. Despite Russell’s own future doubts surrounding the concept, this founding and definitive work in analytical philosophy by one of the world’s most significant philosophers is a remarkable attempt to establish a novel way of thinking.


Book Synopsis The Philosophy of Logical Atomism by : Bertrand Russell

Download or read book The Philosophy of Logical Atomism written by Bertrand Russell and published by Routledge. This book was released on 2009-09-10 with total page 208 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Logical Atomism is a philosophy that sought to account for the world in all its various aspects by relating it to the structure of the language in which we articulate information. In The Philosophy of Logical Atomism, Bertrand Russell, with input from his young student Ludwig Wittgenstein, developed the concept and argues for a reformed language based on pure logic. Despite Russell’s own future doubts surrounding the concept, this founding and definitive work in analytical philosophy by one of the world’s most significant philosophers is a remarkable attempt to establish a novel way of thinking.


Elements of Effective Communication

Elements of Effective Communication

Author: Randal S. Chase

Publisher: Plain & Precious Publishing

Published: 2012-12-01

Total Pages: 398

ISBN-13: 1937901505

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La vida y el ministerio de Jesucristo. Este volumen es el primero de tres sobre el Nuevo Testamento. Abarca la vida de Cristo, desde la selección premortal como el Cordero de Dios a través de Su nacimiento e infancia. Luego seguimos al Maestro durante el primer año de Su ministerio, de como es tentado, bautizado, hace milagros, selecciona a los Doce Apóstoles, y luego enseña con parábolas y en el Sermón de la Montaña durante el segundo año de Su ministerio, Él enseña el sermón del Pan de Vida, se transfigura y otorga las llaves del sacerdocio a los Doce. Termina el segundo año de Su ministerio en Jerusalén, donde se declara a Si mismo la Luz del Mundo, el Hijo de Dios y el Mesías. La cubierta exhibe la imagen clásica de "El Sermón de la Montaña", pintado por Carl Heinrich Bloch en 1890.


Book Synopsis Elements of Effective Communication by : Randal S. Chase

Download or read book Elements of Effective Communication written by Randal S. Chase and published by Plain & Precious Publishing. This book was released on 2012-12-01 with total page 398 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: La vida y el ministerio de Jesucristo. Este volumen es el primero de tres sobre el Nuevo Testamento. Abarca la vida de Cristo, desde la selección premortal como el Cordero de Dios a través de Su nacimiento e infancia. Luego seguimos al Maestro durante el primer año de Su ministerio, de como es tentado, bautizado, hace milagros, selecciona a los Doce Apóstoles, y luego enseña con parábolas y en el Sermón de la Montaña durante el segundo año de Su ministerio, Él enseña el sermón del Pan de Vida, se transfigura y otorga las llaves del sacerdocio a los Doce. Termina el segundo año de Su ministerio en Jerusalén, donde se declara a Si mismo la Luz del Mundo, el Hijo de Dios y el Mesías. La cubierta exhibe la imagen clásica de "El Sermón de la Montaña", pintado por Carl Heinrich Bloch en 1890.


Acting for the Common Good

Acting for the Common Good

Author: Michael J. McGrath

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

Published: 2023-08-08

Total Pages: 305

ISBN-13: 1498242650

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The goods that we pursue in our lives are for us, first and foremost, goods that are particular and personal, and thus goods that are immediate to our attention. Not readily apparent to us are goods necessary for the flourishing of our lives but that can be attained by us only in consort with others and thus realized only through collective action. Such goods are common goods. The wider the good, the more extensive must be the human cooperation to realize the good. A stable, orderly society and a habitable planetary environment are common goods that can be realized only in and through the cooperation of all for the benefit of all. That all contribute to the shared good of the whole is a matter of justice—social justice. Acting for the Common Good undertakes the study of social justice in light of the common good—this from the viewpoint of Catholic social teaching, which draws upon the tradition of the common good that is articulated classically in the philosophy of Aristotle and the theology of Thomas Aquinas and in the modern-day social thought and authoritative teachings of the Catholic Church.


Book Synopsis Acting for the Common Good by : Michael J. McGrath

Download or read book Acting for the Common Good written by Michael J. McGrath and published by Wipf and Stock Publishers. This book was released on 2023-08-08 with total page 305 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The goods that we pursue in our lives are for us, first and foremost, goods that are particular and personal, and thus goods that are immediate to our attention. Not readily apparent to us are goods necessary for the flourishing of our lives but that can be attained by us only in consort with others and thus realized only through collective action. Such goods are common goods. The wider the good, the more extensive must be the human cooperation to realize the good. A stable, orderly society and a habitable planetary environment are common goods that can be realized only in and through the cooperation of all for the benefit of all. That all contribute to the shared good of the whole is a matter of justice—social justice. Acting for the Common Good undertakes the study of social justice in light of the common good—this from the viewpoint of Catholic social teaching, which draws upon the tradition of the common good that is articulated classically in the philosophy of Aristotle and the theology of Thomas Aquinas and in the modern-day social thought and authoritative teachings of the Catholic Church.


An Inquiry into the Human Mind, on the Principles of Common Sense

An Inquiry into the Human Mind, on the Principles of Common Sense

Author: Thomas Reid

Publisher: Ravenio Books

Published: 2014-03-21

Total Pages: 213

ISBN-13:

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The philosopher Thomas Reid (1710 – 1796), the founder of the Scottish School of Common Sense and, was with his contemporary David Hume, played an integral role in the Scottish Enlightenment. Reid's classic treatise on phenomenology includes the following chapters: Chapter I. Introduction I. The importance of the subject, and the means of prosecuting it II. The impediments to our knowledge of the mind III. The present state of this part of philosophy—of Des Cartes, Nalebranche, and Locke IV. Apology for those philosophers V. Of Bishop Berkeley—the “Treatise of Human Nature”—and of scepticism VII. The system of all these authors is the same and leads to scepticism VIII. We ought not to despair of a better Chapter II. Of Smelling I. The order of proceeding. II. The sensation considered abstractly III. Sensation and its remembrance natural principles of belief IV. Judgment and belief in some cases precede simple apprehension V. Two theories of the nature of belief refuted. Conclusions from what hath been said VI. Apology for metaphysical absurdities. Sensation without a sentient, a consequence of the theory of ideas. Consequences of this strange opinion VII. The conception and belief of a sentient being or mind, is suggested by our constitution. The notion of relations not always got by comparing the related ideas VIII. There is a quality or virtue in bodies, which we call their smell. How this is connected in the imagination with the sensation IX. That there is a principle in human nature, from which the notion of this, as well as all other natural virtues or causes, is derived X. Whether in sensations the mind is active or passive Chapter III. Of Tasting Chapter IV. Of Hearing I. Variety of sounds. Their place and distance learned by custom, without reasoning II. Of natural language Chapter V. Of Touch I. Of heat and cold II. Of hardness and softness III. Of natural signs IV. Of hardness, and other primary qualities VI. Of extension VII. Of extension VIII. Of the existence of a material world IX. Of the systems of philosophers concerning the senses Chapter VI. Of Seeing I. The excellence and dignity of this faculty II. Sight discovers almost nothing which the blind may not comprehend. The reason of this III. Of the visible appearances of objects IV. That colour is a quality of bodies, not a sensation of the mind V. First inference from the preceding VI. Second. That none of our sensations are resemblances of any of the qualities of bodies VII. Of visible figure and extension VIII. Some queries concerning visible figure answered IX. Of the geometry of visibles X. Of the parallel motion of the eyes XI. Of our seeing objects erect by inverted images XII. The same subject continued XIII. Of seeing objects single with two eyes XIV. Of the laws of vision in brute animals XV. The phenomena of squinting considered hypothetically XVI. Facts relating to squinting XVII. Of the effect of custom in seeing objects single XVIII. Of Dr. Porterfield’s account of single and double vision XIX. Of Dr. Briggs's theory, and Sir Isaac Newton's conjecture on this subject XX. Of perception in general XXI. Of the process of nature in perception XXII. Of the signs by which we learn to perceive distance from, the eye XXIII. Of the signs used in these acquired perceptions Chapter VII. Conclusion


Book Synopsis An Inquiry into the Human Mind, on the Principles of Common Sense by : Thomas Reid

Download or read book An Inquiry into the Human Mind, on the Principles of Common Sense written by Thomas Reid and published by Ravenio Books. This book was released on 2014-03-21 with total page 213 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The philosopher Thomas Reid (1710 – 1796), the founder of the Scottish School of Common Sense and, was with his contemporary David Hume, played an integral role in the Scottish Enlightenment. Reid's classic treatise on phenomenology includes the following chapters: Chapter I. Introduction I. The importance of the subject, and the means of prosecuting it II. The impediments to our knowledge of the mind III. The present state of this part of philosophy—of Des Cartes, Nalebranche, and Locke IV. Apology for those philosophers V. Of Bishop Berkeley—the “Treatise of Human Nature”—and of scepticism VII. The system of all these authors is the same and leads to scepticism VIII. We ought not to despair of a better Chapter II. Of Smelling I. The order of proceeding. II. The sensation considered abstractly III. Sensation and its remembrance natural principles of belief IV. Judgment and belief in some cases precede simple apprehension V. Two theories of the nature of belief refuted. Conclusions from what hath been said VI. Apology for metaphysical absurdities. Sensation without a sentient, a consequence of the theory of ideas. Consequences of this strange opinion VII. The conception and belief of a sentient being or mind, is suggested by our constitution. The notion of relations not always got by comparing the related ideas VIII. There is a quality or virtue in bodies, which we call their smell. How this is connected in the imagination with the sensation IX. That there is a principle in human nature, from which the notion of this, as well as all other natural virtues or causes, is derived X. Whether in sensations the mind is active or passive Chapter III. Of Tasting Chapter IV. Of Hearing I. Variety of sounds. Their place and distance learned by custom, without reasoning II. Of natural language Chapter V. Of Touch I. Of heat and cold II. Of hardness and softness III. Of natural signs IV. Of hardness, and other primary qualities VI. Of extension VII. Of extension VIII. Of the existence of a material world IX. Of the systems of philosophers concerning the senses Chapter VI. Of Seeing I. The excellence and dignity of this faculty II. Sight discovers almost nothing which the blind may not comprehend. The reason of this III. Of the visible appearances of objects IV. That colour is a quality of bodies, not a sensation of the mind V. First inference from the preceding VI. Second. That none of our sensations are resemblances of any of the qualities of bodies VII. Of visible figure and extension VIII. Some queries concerning visible figure answered IX. Of the geometry of visibles X. Of the parallel motion of the eyes XI. Of our seeing objects erect by inverted images XII. The same subject continued XIII. Of seeing objects single with two eyes XIV. Of the laws of vision in brute animals XV. The phenomena of squinting considered hypothetically XVI. Facts relating to squinting XVII. Of the effect of custom in seeing objects single XVIII. Of Dr. Porterfield’s account of single and double vision XIX. Of Dr. Briggs's theory, and Sir Isaac Newton's conjecture on this subject XX. Of perception in general XXI. Of the process of nature in perception XXII. Of the signs by which we learn to perceive distance from, the eye XXIII. Of the signs used in these acquired perceptions Chapter VII. Conclusion


TOMORROW IS TODAY, A behavior modification methodology, guide, and workbook to manage the job search process

TOMORROW IS TODAY, A behavior modification methodology, guide, and workbook to manage the job search process

Author: Lawrence D. Alter

Publisher: LDA Enterprises, Ltd.

Published: 1901

Total Pages: 248

ISBN-13: 0615184375

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This 240-page workbook is a highly effective, no nonsense, self-marketing instrument to facilitate and manage the entire job-search campaign. Contained in its pages are all the tools and information necessary to help your terminated employee win and keep their next job. Whether or not you provide Outplacement support to your separated employees, our workbook would be an excellent tool to augment their job search. It provides a complete resource to help the discharged worker achieve and keep their next position. FINDING A JOB IS HARD WORK. It has been estimated that as many as one out of every three workers attempts to change jobs annually in the United States. Out of a labor force of 153 million, that represents almost 50,000,000 job seekers who are seeking new employment each year. As a result, the job search process is highly competitive at all levels. It can be lengthy, frustrating, prejudicial, and unfair. Older, more traditional job finding techniques have become less productive. The traditional resume no longer has the same impact in generating the all important and often elusive interview. Both the Wall Street Journal and USA TODAY have highlighted the fact that only about 15% of all professionals find a new position through responding to published advertisements or online postings, another 10% through placement agencies or search firms, and only 5% through unsolicited direct mail. Why then, would anyone focus 90% of their time and effort in areas that represent only about 30% of all potential opportunities? It is not uncommon for 200-300 people to respond to help wanted advertisements. Yet seldom do more than 6 to 10 people achieve interviews, and after an often lengthy process, only one person gets the job. Everyone else starts the whole process again. Older Americans, women, and minorities can often face an even more difficult road due to unspoken, but ever-present biases. There is a better way. Tomorrow Is Today dispels the myth that the most qualified candidate always gets the job. It points out that the person who is hired is usually the one who is liked the best. This book can be a major factor in how you differentiate yourself from other candidates when the hiring decision is almost always based upon subjective factors such as the individual’s personality style, body language, and manner of being interviewed. It is an invaluable resource in helping you to achieve your next position with added features that assist in effectively managing both career growth and family issues.


Book Synopsis TOMORROW IS TODAY, A behavior modification methodology, guide, and workbook to manage the job search process by : Lawrence D. Alter

Download or read book TOMORROW IS TODAY, A behavior modification methodology, guide, and workbook to manage the job search process written by Lawrence D. Alter and published by LDA Enterprises, Ltd.. This book was released on 1901 with total page 248 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This 240-page workbook is a highly effective, no nonsense, self-marketing instrument to facilitate and manage the entire job-search campaign. Contained in its pages are all the tools and information necessary to help your terminated employee win and keep their next job. Whether or not you provide Outplacement support to your separated employees, our workbook would be an excellent tool to augment their job search. It provides a complete resource to help the discharged worker achieve and keep their next position. FINDING A JOB IS HARD WORK. It has been estimated that as many as one out of every three workers attempts to change jobs annually in the United States. Out of a labor force of 153 million, that represents almost 50,000,000 job seekers who are seeking new employment each year. As a result, the job search process is highly competitive at all levels. It can be lengthy, frustrating, prejudicial, and unfair. Older, more traditional job finding techniques have become less productive. The traditional resume no longer has the same impact in generating the all important and often elusive interview. Both the Wall Street Journal and USA TODAY have highlighted the fact that only about 15% of all professionals find a new position through responding to published advertisements or online postings, another 10% through placement agencies or search firms, and only 5% through unsolicited direct mail. Why then, would anyone focus 90% of their time and effort in areas that represent only about 30% of all potential opportunities? It is not uncommon for 200-300 people to respond to help wanted advertisements. Yet seldom do more than 6 to 10 people achieve interviews, and after an often lengthy process, only one person gets the job. Everyone else starts the whole process again. Older Americans, women, and minorities can often face an even more difficult road due to unspoken, but ever-present biases. There is a better way. Tomorrow Is Today dispels the myth that the most qualified candidate always gets the job. It points out that the person who is hired is usually the one who is liked the best. This book can be a major factor in how you differentiate yourself from other candidates when the hiring decision is almost always based upon subjective factors such as the individual’s personality style, body language, and manner of being interviewed. It is an invaluable resource in helping you to achieve your next position with added features that assist in effectively managing both career growth and family issues.


Slavoj Žižek: Live Theory

Slavoj Žižek: Live Theory

Author: Rex Butler

Publisher: A&C Black

Published: 2005-03-04

Total Pages: 174

ISBN-13: 0826469957

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Slavoj Žižek is undoubtedly one of the world's leading cultural critics. His witty, psychoanalytically-inspired analyses of contemporary society have almost single-handedly revived the notion of ideology. His brilliant commentaries on the French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan and the 19th century German Idealists have brought alive their often difficult ideas for a new generation of readers. But does Žižek have anything to say in his own right? Is there a system of thought that we can properly call " Žižekian"? This book argues that there is, through a reading of two terms in his work—the master-signifier and the act. Featuring an interview with Žižek himself, Slavoj Žižek: Live Theory presents a snapshot of the Žižek system ideal for undergraduates in social and cultural theory and philosophy.


Book Synopsis Slavoj Žižek: Live Theory by : Rex Butler

Download or read book Slavoj Žižek: Live Theory written by Rex Butler and published by A&C Black. This book was released on 2005-03-04 with total page 174 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Slavoj Žižek is undoubtedly one of the world's leading cultural critics. His witty, psychoanalytically-inspired analyses of contemporary society have almost single-handedly revived the notion of ideology. His brilliant commentaries on the French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan and the 19th century German Idealists have brought alive their often difficult ideas for a new generation of readers. But does Žižek have anything to say in his own right? Is there a system of thought that we can properly call " Žižekian"? This book argues that there is, through a reading of two terms in his work—the master-signifier and the act. Featuring an interview with Žižek himself, Slavoj Žižek: Live Theory presents a snapshot of the Žižek system ideal for undergraduates in social and cultural theory and philosophy.


Art and Knowledge

Art and Knowledge

Author: James O. Young

Publisher: Routledge

Published: 2003-09-02

Total Pages: 193

ISBN-13: 1134519303

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This is an interesting, as well as controversial, exploration of what art is and why it is valuable. Young reflects on the essence of art and argues that it provides insight into human nature. This text will be of interest to all philosophers.


Book Synopsis Art and Knowledge by : James O. Young

Download or read book Art and Knowledge written by James O. Young and published by Routledge. This book was released on 2003-09-02 with total page 193 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This is an interesting, as well as controversial, exploration of what art is and why it is valuable. Young reflects on the essence of art and argues that it provides insight into human nature. This text will be of interest to all philosophers.


Common: The Development of Literary Culture in Sixteenth-Century England

Common: The Development of Literary Culture in Sixteenth-Century England

Author: Neil Rhodes

Publisher: Oxford University Press

Published: 2018-04-13

Total Pages: 344

ISBN-13: 0191009261

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This volume explores the development of literary culture in sixteenth-century England as a whole and seeks to explain the relationship between the Reformation and the literary renaissance of the Elizabethan period. Its central theme is the 'common' in its double sense of something shared and something base, and it argues that making common the work of God is at the heart of the English Reformation just as making common the literature of antiquity and of early modern Europe is at the heart of the English Renaissance. Its central question is 'why was the Renaissance in England so late?' That question is addressed in terms of the relationship between Humanism and Protestantism and the tensions between democracy and the imagination which persist throughout the century. Part One establishes a social dimension for literary culture in the period by exploring the associations of 'commonwealth' and related terms. It addresses the role of Greek in the period before and during the Reformation in disturbing the old binary of elite Latin and common English. It also argues that the Reformation principle of making common is coupled with a hostility towards fiction, which has the effect of closing down the humanist renaissance of the earlier decades. Part Two presents translation as the link between Reformation and Renaissance, and the final part discusses the Elizabethan literary renaissance and deals in turn with poetry, short prose fiction, and the drama written for the common stage.


Book Synopsis Common: The Development of Literary Culture in Sixteenth-Century England by : Neil Rhodes

Download or read book Common: The Development of Literary Culture in Sixteenth-Century England written by Neil Rhodes and published by Oxford University Press. This book was released on 2018-04-13 with total page 344 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This volume explores the development of literary culture in sixteenth-century England as a whole and seeks to explain the relationship between the Reformation and the literary renaissance of the Elizabethan period. Its central theme is the 'common' in its double sense of something shared and something base, and it argues that making common the work of God is at the heart of the English Reformation just as making common the literature of antiquity and of early modern Europe is at the heart of the English Renaissance. Its central question is 'why was the Renaissance in England so late?' That question is addressed in terms of the relationship between Humanism and Protestantism and the tensions between democracy and the imagination which persist throughout the century. Part One establishes a social dimension for literary culture in the period by exploring the associations of 'commonwealth' and related terms. It addresses the role of Greek in the period before and during the Reformation in disturbing the old binary of elite Latin and common English. It also argues that the Reformation principle of making common is coupled with a hostility towards fiction, which has the effect of closing down the humanist renaissance of the earlier decades. Part Two presents translation as the link between Reformation and Renaissance, and the final part discusses the Elizabethan literary renaissance and deals in turn with poetry, short prose fiction, and the drama written for the common stage.